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Adhesives for Medical Devices

Edward M. Petrie – Nov 26, 2021

TAGS:  Acrylic Adhesives      Epoxy Adhesives      Polyurethane Adhesives    

Adhesives for Medical DevicesMany types of medical devices rely on adhesives for assembly. Medical device manufacturing requires that the final products exhibit maximum reliability and performance under conditions that are not common in other industries.

As a result, manufacturers of medical devices insist on significant testing and verification prior to choosing an adhesive. The standards and regulations in this industry are much different than other industries. The nature of the medical device market also dictates that the adhesive be economical and amenable to high-volume manufacturing methods.


In medical device assembly, the primary substrates are plastics, elastomers, and metals. These adhesives are used to bond medical products such as:

  • Syringes,
  • Blood bags,
  • Tube connections,
  • Dialysis filters, and
  • Many forms of diagnostic equipment (wearable, standalone, and implantable).

Such medical devices often come into contact with blood or bodily fluids.

Here, you will learn about the special requirements that are imposed on the adhesive formulator for participation in the medical device market. Also, explore the commonly used types and methods of application for medical adhesives as well as identify the trends in the industry that assure continued market growth. Other medical adhesives applications, such as surgical adhesives, dental restoration, and wound care where the substrate is generally human tissue are not discussed here.

Let's drive your attention towards the hot topics leading to growing demand of adhesives for medical devices:



Medical Adhesives – Market Potential and Applications


The medical device adhesive market size is forecast to reach 4.16 billion USD by 2026, after growing at a CAGR of 6.8% during 2021-2026. Structural adhesives will hold the largest share of the medical device adhesive market, growing at a CAGR of 6.7%.1 Factors that will contribute to this growth include longer life expectancy and the development of new medical technology and electronics.

Just about any medical apparatus or diagnostic device may have applications for medical-grade adhesives. Traditionally, there are three classes of medical devices that have been assembled with adhesives:

  • Disposables (e.g., syringe, catheters, and oxygenators)
  • Reusables (e.g., surgical instruments, diagnostic equipment), and
  • Implantables (e.g., pacemakers)
Medical Devices Assembled with Adhesives

More recently two additional types of medical devices have emerged:

  • Sterile reusables (e.g., endoscopes, laparoscopes)
  • Resposables (devices originally intended as disposable but now considered for re-use).

Sterile reusable devices have undergone significant market growth over the past several years due to advances in less invasive surgery. The adhesive used in resposables may be considered to have the same requirements as sterile reusables. They have become prominent during the Covid-19 pandemic (e.g., protective masks and clothing).

All of these products may come into contact with blood or bodily fluids, and they are subjected to a sterilization process prior to use. They are subject to strict standards and regulations that will be described in the next section.

Nonsterile medical devices are also used (e.g., external diagnostic devices, medical electronics). These do not come into direct contact with the patient’s bodily functions. Typically, these adhesives are selected based on conventional criteria (heat and aging resistance, strength, etc.) and do not require toxicity testing or resistance to sterilization.

Check Out Suitable Adhesive Ingredients Used in Medical Industry »


Standards and Regulations in the Medical Industry


Along with more standard adhesive performance requirements, medical devices manufacturers expect the adhesive to withstand the rigors of sterilization, exposure to fluids, and occasional abuse. Common selection criteria include:

  • Substrate adhesion
  • Strength requirements
  • Type of loading
  • Impact resistance
  • Temperature resistance, and
  • Processing requirements

However, the function of many medical devices requires at least two other important criteria: low toxicity or biocompatibility and resistance to sterilization.

Because of the criticality of the product, the medical device manufacturer will ask the potential adhesive supplier a variety of questions during the selection process.2 These inquiries include the following:

  • What biocompatibility standard has the adhesive been tested to?
  • What were the extract test conditions?
  • What qualification tests are included in the standard?
  • How were the test specimens prepared (e.g., bonded assemblies or only bulk adhesive)?
  • How frequently are products retested to verify compliance?
  • What documentation can the supplier provide to verify compliance?

Several important standards and regulations have been developed in the industry. The entire medical device component is usually tested, but often the adhesive is tested separately using procedures similar to those used to qualify the completed end-use devices.


Toxicity or Biocompatibility


Adhesives used in medical devices are tested for their effect on cells (cytotoxicity), blood constituents (hemolysis), adjacent tissues, and for overall systemic effect. Several classes of biocompatibility testing exist. Adhesive suppliers, however, generally test to the following guidelines that have been established for toxicological properties and biocompatibility:

  • United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) – Class VI Standard
  • International Standards Organization (ISO) – ISO-10993

These guidelines were originally developed for testing the suitability of plastics used in medical devices that may come into contact with bodily fluids, but they have been extended to adhesives as well. Generally, products are tested by an independent laboratory. The results are typically provided to device or adhesive manufacturers in the form of certifications of compliance on an as-requested basis. Meeting these standards verifies that the successfully tested products are non-toxic and biologically inert in the cured state.

The two standards specify slightly different tests and follow different methodologies.

  1. The USP Class VI test method consists of acute systemic (over the tissue), intracutaneous (under the skin), and muscle implantation (in the muscle) tests. The Class VI rating merely states that the products exhibit a low level of toxicity under the test conditions.

  2. The ISO-10993 standard is generally recognized as the standard of choice for companies operating globally. It is widely recognized by North American, European, and Asian countries. It is also somewhat more extensive than the USP Class VI standard. The ISO-10993 biocompatibility testing includes:

    Intracutaneous injection tests to evaluate the irritation potential of the material
    Acute systemic injection tests to evaluate the material for potential toxic effects as a result of single-dose systemic injections.
    Cytotoxicity tests to determine the biological reactivity of monolayer cell cultures to the material.
    Hemocompatibility tests to evaluate the hemolytic potential of the material with rabbit blood. (In vitro hemocompatibility tests ensure that the test material’s extract does not adversely affect the cellular components of the blood.)

Generally, the minimum test method used in determining the biocompatibility of an adhesive is ISO 10993-5 cytotoxicity test. This test helps confirm if the adhesive has any negative impact on the cells of mammals. These biocompatibility tests represent only a guideline. More extensive and specific testing may be required by certain device manufacturers.

Typical testing parameters that could affect the results include the number of test specimens, cure conditions, extraction conditions, the product tested (device, subcomponent, or adhesive), and sample size and configuration (coatings, joint section, bulk adhesive, etc.). Exposure temperatures, solvents used for extractions, and test duration can all vary and should be well defined within the test procedure.

The frequency of testing and documentation required also varies from supplier to supplier. Device manufacturers generally require the adhesive manufacturer to “lock-in” a particular formulation, guaranteeing that the formulation will not change without notification and retesting.


Sterilization Resistance


Another important criterion to recognize for medical device adhesives is resistance to sterilization. Most disposable and reusable medical devices go through some type of sterilization process prior to use. Some products (endoscopes, surgical instruments, etc.) may be subjected to multiple sterilization cycles, and the adhesive must resist these processes and continue to perform its primary function.

The common sterilization processes include steam autoclaving, irradiation (electron beam or isotopes), ethylene oxide (EtO), hydrogen peroxide with plasma discharge, dry heat, and chemical immersion. The resistance of adhesives to these processes will be dependent on the conditions of the sterilization cycle as well as on the chemistry of the adhesive. For example, cyanoacrylates and UV cured products provide good resistance to EtO and gamma radiation, but they can degrade if subjected to repeated autoclave cycles.

The sterilization processes are summarized in the table below. EtO sterilization is the most widely used process; however, other processes such as radiation and plasma discharge, are gaining acceptance due to their fast-processing times. New bulk sterilization methods are also emerging. These include hydrogen peroxide and dry heat sterilization.

Process

Conditions

Characteristics

Ethylene oxide (EtO)

Device exposed to gaseous ethylene oxide.

  • Least aggressive form of sterilization.
  • Low-cost process, having environmental concerns.
  • Non-ozone depleting carrier gases (carbon dioxide and chlorotetrafluoroethane) have replaced Freon.
  • Residual levels of EtO must be controlled.

Irradiation

Bombardment of the device with high-energy electrons. Gamma, beta, and electron beam radiation are used.

  • Effect on many polymeric materials is crosslinking or chain scission.
  • Gamma radiation is characterized by deep penetration (even packaged articles) and low dose rates.

Steam autoclave

Device is exposed to live steam in a pressurized chamber.

  • Temps between 121°-132°C and saturated moisture.
  • Hydrolytic stability of the materials is important.
  • Other potentially aggressive agents in the cycle are soaps, lubricants, etc.
  • Considered to be less effective than EtO or irradiation.

Hydrogen peroxide (gas plasma)

Uses hydrogen peroxide as the substrate gas and radiofrequency emissions to generate plasma.

  • Gas plasma sterilization is new to the healthcare field.
  • This system is a low-temperature, quick-acting process with no toxic residues.
  • Sterilizes by the process of oxidation.

Chemical immersion

Immersion in solutions of hydrogen peroxide, glutaraldehyde, etc.

  • Often called “cold” sterilization.
  • Chemicals must be approved by FDA.
  • Primarily used for dental instruments.

Dry heat

Device is exposed for 2-3 hrs at 165°-170°C.

  • Least effective sterilization process.

Commonly Used Sterilization Processes


Medical Devices Sterilized by Autoclaving Autoclave sterilization is one of the most difficult sterilization environments for a medical adhesive, and it is commonly used in hospitals and healthcare facilities for reusable devices. Autoclaves sterilize with high-pressure steam. Temperatures inside the sterilization chamber typically can reach 130°C with pressures above ambient.

Certain adhesive systems, such as polyurethanes, may show hydrolytic degradation in such environments especially after multiple cycles. Epoxies perform the best under multiple autoclave exposures. However, on certain substrates, light-cured acrylics and cyanoacrylates will also perform well.

Similar to biocompatibility testing, sterilization resistance testing can be applied either to the device, a subcomponent or to a cured section of adhesive. The time, temperature, dosage or concentration, and other test parameters will affect the results.

Although there are many standards to determine the degree of sterilization achieved with various processes, there is no specific standard in use for determining the adhesive’s resistance to the various sterilization processes. Thus, the part or material is generally exposed to several actual sterilization processes and then tested for changes in weight or hardness. Most often the entire device is tested so that a functional end-use property (e.g., impact resistance) can be measured.

» Develop structural adhesive systems for medical devices meeting specific needs (fast cure, resistant to sterilization cycles, high production speed…)

Medical Devices- Formulating for their Specific Requirements


Methods of Assembly Employed by Medical Device Manufacturers


Medical device manufacturers employ a variety of assembly methods in addition to adhesive bonding. These include solvent welding, ultrasonic welding, and vibration welding. The advantages and disadvantages of each of these processes are summarized in the table below. In addition to these processes, physical joining technologies such as mechanical snap-fit, interference fit, and insert molding are also employed.

Adhesive bonding is well regarded in the industry because it does not have health and safety issues as does solvent welding. Adhesive bonding also does not require the high capital equipment costs as do ultrasonic or vibration welding. Adhesives are highly valued in medical device assembly because they have the following properties:

  • Good gap filling characteristics
  • Can be applied on both thermoset and thermoplastic substrates, nonpolymeric substrates, and dissimilar substrates
  • Can be either flexible or rigid
  • Distribute stresses evenly across the bond line
  • Can form a hermetic seal when confined between two substrates.

The major disadvantages are the time required for the adhesive to cure, the need for additional chemicals in the operation (e.g., during substrate pretreatment), which can be difficult and result in a relatively high level of waste. Many of these disadvantages are minimized with modern adhesive systems.

Process

Advantages

Disadvantages

Adhesive bonding

  • Requires cure time
  • Requires fixture time
  • Can be messy
  • Requires additional chemicals in the plant

Solvent welding

  • Fast
  • Low cost
  • Simple
  • Not useable on thermosets
  • Can cause stress cracking
  • Health and safety issues
  • Poor gap filling

Ultrasonic welding

  • Easily automated
  • Simple
  • Fast
  • Surface preparation is not required
  • Not useable on thermosets
  • Plastics must be compatible
  • Poor gap filling
  • High capital costs
  • Must remove or hide weld flash
  • Cannot make continuous seals

Vibration welding

  • Simple
  • Fast
  • Surface preparation is not required
  • Not usable on thermosets
  • Plastics must be rigid and flat
  • High capital costs
  • Must remove or hide weld flash
  • Substrates must be geometrically suitable

Common Processes Used in the Assembly of Medical Devices3


Common Types of Adhesives for Medical Devices


The types of structural adhesive most commonly used for the assembly of medical devices (See table below) include cyanoacrylates, acrylics, light-curable cyanoacrylates and acrylics, epoxies, urethanes, silicones, and dual-cure (UV/moisture). Non-structural adhesives are generally used as medical-grade pressure-sensitive adhesives. The medical device manufacturers use pressure-sensitive adhesives for joining and sealing parts. These are usually formulated from silicone, polyurethane, or acrylic and must meet the same biocompatibility and sterilization resistance standards as structural adhesives.

Chemistry

Advantages

Disadvantages

Common Applications

Cyanoacrylates

  • Substrate versatility
  • Very rapid cure
  • Adhesion to hard to bond plastics with primer
  • Poor thermal and chemical resistance
  • Rigid
  • Poor peel strength
  • Blooming
  • Stress cracking of certain substrates
  • Catheter components
  • Tube-set bonding
  • Polyolefin bonding
  • Latex balloons

Light-curable cyanoacrylates

  • Cures on demand (secs)
  • Cures in shadow areas with secondary moisture cure
  • Minimal blooming
  • Cost for light cure equipment
  • Similar to cyanoacrylate adhesive
  • Same as cyanoacrylate

Acrylics

  • Fast cure (mins)
  • 2K or 1K with primer
  • Substrate versatility
  • Moderate thermal and chemical resistance
  • Minimal surface prep for low surface energy plastics
  • Rigid, poor impact strength
  • Poor peel strength
  • Strong odor
  • Stress cracking of certain substrates
  • Low surface energy substrates
  • Polycarbonate and composite components

Light-curable acrylics

  • Substrate versatility
  • Good thermal and chemical resistance
  • Cures on demand (secs)
  • Flexible formulations
  • Cost for light cure equipment
  • Poor peel strength
  • Will not cure in shadow areas or deep sections
  • Needle assembly
  • Anesthesia masks
  • Polycarbonate components
  • Tube-set bonding

Epoxy

  • Substrate versatility
  • Superior thermal and chemical resistance
  • Low shrinkage
  • Good gap filling
  • Rigid
  • Poor peel strength
  • Exothermic reaction
  • Two-part systems require mixing
  • Time for cure
  • Deep section potting
  • Needle assembly
  • General assembly

Polyurethanes

  • Substrate versatility
  • High peel and impact
  • Good environmental resistance
  • Some types are hydrolytically unstable
  • Two-part systems require mixing
  • Time for cure with some formulations
  • Deep section potting
  • Bonding of tips onto components

Silicones

  • Substrate versatility
  • High peel strength
  • High heat resistance
  • Good elongation
  • Environmental resistance
  • Good bond strength to low energy substrates
  • Poor shear strength
  • Time for full cure
  • Low cohesive strength
  • Bonding and sealing of silicone substrates
  • Coatings, adhesives, and sealants for highly flexible substrates

Dual cure silicones (UV and moisture)

  • Soft and flexible
  • Fast cure (secs)
  • Cures in shadow areas
  • High elongation and tear resistance
  • Cost for light cure equipment
  • Poor shear strength
  • Low cohesive strength
  • Respiratory devices
  • Tracheal and endotracheal tubes
  • Catheters
  • Colostomy devices
Find Out Suitable Adhesive Ingredients Used to Assemble Medical Devices »

Common Adhesives Used to Assemble Medical Devices


Cyanoacrylates


Cyanoacrylates are polar, linear molecules that cure quickly in a matter of seconds and require no metering or mixing.4 Cyanoacrylates cure when they come into contact with a weak base, such as the moisture present on most substrate surfaces. A variety of cyanoacrylate formulations are available. They vary in viscosity, cure time, strength properties, temperature resistance, and substrate adhesion.

Cyanoacrylates are thermoplastic when cured. Thus, they exhibit relatively poor resistance to solvents and moistures especially at elevated temperatures (i.e., greater than 70°C). Dry heat and autoclave sterilization methods will degrade many cyanoacrylate joints. Specifically modified cyanoacrylate formulations are claimed to withstand continuous temperatures of up to 120°C.

Cyanoacrylate adhesives also have relatively low impact and peel strengths, and certain products can be brittle. However, modern formulations are toughened with the addition of elastomeric resins. Another disadvantage of cyanoacrylate is blooming or frosting which is a white haze that develops around the bond line. This is primarily an aesthetic concern and does not affect the strength of the joint. Some cyanoacrylate adhesive formulations use monomers with lower vapor pressures and higher molecular weight to reduce the blooming tendency.

Primers are available with cyanoacrylate adhesives to either increase adhesion on certain hard-to-bond substrates (polyolefins, fluorocarbons, etc.) or to accelerate the cure. These primers are generally formulated with reactive species in a solvent carrier.


Light-curable Cyanoacrylates


Light-curable cyanoacrylates are similar to the standard cyanoacrylate resins; however, a photoinitiator is added to the formulation. The end-product is fast curing (seconds) under UV and/or visible light. This technology produces minimal blooming, and excess uncured cyanoacrylate in the fillet area of a joint can be hardened quickly to avoid tackiness.

Increased depth of cure is possible compared to traditional cyanoacrylate adhesives, and the adhesive will cure in shadowed areas, unlike light-curable acrylic adhesives. The physical properties and end-use applications are similar to the standard cyanoacrylate adhesive, and primers can be used to improve bond strength to low-energy substrates such as polyolefins.


Acrylics


Thermoset acrylic adhesives are fast-acting adhesives (minutes to hours) with excellent substrate versatility, good strength, and a wide formulation range. The service temperature for continuous use (150°C) is greater than cyanoacrylate adhesives but lower than most epoxy adhesives.

There are several forms of acrylic adhesive available. One form is a 1K product that requires the use of a catalyst/primer on one or the other substrates. Another form is similar to 2K epoxy or urethane systems. However, the most widely used acrylic-based system for medical devices is light-curable acrylics.

Thermoset acrylic adhesives show excellent bond strength to low surface energy plastics without substrate pretreatment. They are also relatively insensitive to contamination on the substrate surface. The main disadvantages are a strong odor along with rigidity resulting in poor impact and peel strength. Like cyanoacrylate adhesives, acrylics can cause crazing (i.e., stress cracking) in certain plastic substrates that are attacked by the monomers used in the formulation.

Join our exclusive course 'Structural Acrylic Adhesive Formulation and Use' and go deeper into formulating and selection of thermosetting acrylic adhesives (core chemistry, base materials, formulation principles…)”

Structural Acrylic Adhesive Formulation and Use


Light-curable Acrylics


Light-curable acrylic adhesives range from low viscosity formulations to thixotropic gels. They can be hard and brittle or relatively soft and flexible depending on the specific formulation. Light curing acrylic adhesives can set in as little as 5 seconds. They can provide clear bonds on a variety of substrates. Because light-curable acrylics are thermosetting resins, they provide greater thermal, chemical, and environmental resistance than cyanoacrylate adhesives and are better suited for sterilization processes.

Recent advances in light-curing acrylic adhesives have resulted in extremely flexible polymers (Shore 70A hardness and 100% elongation). As a result, these flexible formulations are appropriate for applications that require flexing or thermal cycling of substrates having different thermal expansion coefficients.

Among the numerous medical applications involving light curable acrylic adhesive are needle assembly, anesthesia mask bonding, polycarbonate component assembly (e.g., oxygenators, heat exchangers, and surgical pumps), and hearing aid molding.


Epoxies


Epoxies cure to a well-crosslinked, thermosetting molecular structure. As a result, they provide optimum thermal, chemical, and environmental resistance as compared to the other medical adhesives described in this article. Some epoxy adhesives can be used at temperatures over 150°C, and they are resistant to most fluids and chemicals.

Depending on their formulation, epoxy adhesives can vary significantly in modulus and toughness. However, most epoxy systems are relatively rigid when cured so that their peel strength is less than adhesives with a greater degree of elongation (e.g., polyurethanes). As a result, epoxy adhesive formulations generally require the addition of tougheners for improved impact and peel properties.

Both room temperature and heat-curable epoxy adhesives are used. The room temperature curing systems require metering and mixing, and the cure time is generally slow (several hours). The heat-curable systems are generally one-part systems, and they can be cured in much less time, but the entire joint area must come up to temperature and be maintained at temperature until the adhesive cures.

Epoxies can cure in deep sections and are useful in potting and deep section sealing applications. Since epoxy systems cure via an exothermic reaction, their use on temperature-sensitive substrates is limited. They adhere well to many different substrates and are used in the general assembly of many medical devices both inside and outside the body. For example, a clear, medical-grade, low viscosity epoxy adhesive has proven useful in the fabrication of access ports that are implanted beneath the skin of patients who require multiple infusions.5

View various epoxy grades used for medical device assembly formulations »


Polyurethanes


Like epoxies, polyurethanes come in 1K and 2K systems. The main difference between epoxy and polyurethane is that polyurethane has a higher degree of elongation and is a tougher polymer. Thus, polyurethanes have better peel strength and impact resistance.

Polyurethanes also form a thermosetting structure when cured that is resistant to heat and chemicals. The thermal resistance of polyurethane adhesive is generally lower than that of epoxies but greater than that of cyanoacrylates. Thermoplastic polyurethanes are also available and widely used in many packaging and laminating applications.

The major drawback to the use of polyurethanes is their sensitivity to moisture in both uncured and cured conditions. Excess moisture on the part or in the assembly environment can cause unwanted side reactions and weaken the joint. It could also change the curing time of the polyurethane adhesive. Certain cured polyurethanes exhibit hydrolytic instability when exposed to high humidity and high temperatures. The polyurethanes based on polyether polyols are most resistant to this effect, and urethanes based on polyester polyols are least resistant.

The most common applications for polyurethane adhesive in the medical industry include:

  • Bonding tips on catheters and optical scopes,
  • Sealing oxygenators and heat exchangers, and
  • Assembling components that require significant flexibility.


Silicones


Silicone adhesives are like polyurethanes in that they cure into an elastomeric polymer. However, silicone adhesives exhibit lower cohesive strengths than any other medical adhesive described in this article. Thus, they are primarily used for sealing, coating, and adhesive applications requiring high peel strength and where shear strength is a minor criterion. Silicone adhesives have a low surface tension so that they can provide excellent bonds to most low surface energy plastics.

Silicone adhesives are available in various types including 1K (moisture curing) and 2K systems. The 2K systems are generally not used in medical applications because of the biocompatibility of the catalyst used in the formulation. The 1K systems can be cured by several moisture curing mechanisms. One mechanism results in a byproduct, acetic acid, which can corrode metal surfaces. Neutral curing silicones are also available that do not liberate acid on cure.

Typical applications for silicone adhesives in the medical industry include:

  • The bonding and sealing of silicone-based assemblies,
  • Coating of components to minimize rough edges or burrs, and
  • Coating of highly flexible assemblies such as endotracheal and tracheotomy tubes.

Silicone adhesives and gels have been used as implantable devices. An example of an implantable-grade silicone is a mixture of pure silicone resin (e.g., dimethyl silicone elastomer) and catalyst (e.g., a platinum catalyst). This mixture can be cured via an addition reaction at elevated temperatures (e.g., 20 secs at 160°C).6 Implant grade room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) adhesives are also available; these 1K adhesives cure on exposure to moisture in the ambient air.


Dual-Cure Silicones


New 1K dual-cure (UV / moisture) silicone systems are also commercially available. These systems provide handling strength within seconds via UV exposure followed by a full cure within 72 hours via the moisture-curing mechanism. The secondary moisture cure ensures curing in shadowed areas.

Dual cure silicone systems cure to soft and flexible adhesives that are translucent in appearance. They cure to a thermosetting structure and have high adhesion to both metals and plastics (including other silicones). These adhesives also have high elongation and tear properties. They are generally used in the same medical applications as conventional silicone adhesives.


Key Trends in Medical Adhesives Market


Key Medical Trends – Remote Monitoring Devices The extraordinary growth of the medical adhesives market is expected to continue. Much of the growth can be attributed to the aging population, since older individuals are more likely to require surgical and diagnostic procedures than other age groups. Growth will also result due to:

  • The introduction of new products and
  • The increasing development of biocompatible and sterilization-resistant polymeric materials.

Two of the largest drivers for development are production speed and ease of assembly. Light and UV curing adhesive formulations will continue to be developed for this purpose. As medical devices become smaller and more complex, greater demands (e.g., thermal conductivity, accurate dispensing, electrical properties) are being made on the materials and assembly processes used to produce them.

Other key factors driving the growth of the medical adhesive market are:

  • The increasing number of medical implant/transplant procedures and
  • The rising adoption of minimally invasive procedures.

For example, adhesives are a critical component of transdermal drug delivery devices. These are often referred to as “wearables.” The rapid development of drugs designed specifically for transdermal delivery shows no signs of abating. This will tend to accelerate the medical adhesives market.

In addition to wearables, medical adhesives are going into new devices that have requirements far greater than standard industrial adhesives. These include various types of personal protective equipment (PPE), wound dressings, surgical applications, along with diagnostic and pharmaceutical devices. In the United States, the FDA recently issued an array of COVID-19 related guidance documents that facilitate the expanded availability of certain medical products. These products include diagnostics, personal protective equipment, remote monitoring devices, ventilators, disinfectant devices, clinical electronic thermometers, and others.


Formulate Adhesive Systems for Medical Devices


Take the course by Edward M. Petrie where he will review the latest materials, new technologies and specific requirements of medical applications (hydrogels, pharmaceuticals, biocompatible implants…) & their impact on adhesives formulation (structural adhesive assembly, PSAs…). He will also share latest strategies & provide guidance on related tests and standards.

Medical Devices- Formulating for their Specific Requirements


Adhesive Ingredients Used in the Medical Industry


View all the commercially available ingredients used for adhesives in the medical industry, analyze technical data of each product, get technical assistance or request samples.




Check Out the Starting Point Formulations in the Medical Industry Check Out the Starting Point Formulations in the Medical Industry



References

  1. Medical Device Adhesive Market - Industry Analysis, Market Size, Share, Trends, Application Analysis, Growth and Forecast 2021 – 2026, Report Code: CMR 38697, IndustryARC™, 2021.
  2. Marotta, C.S., High Performance Adhesives for Medical Device Assembly [Online], http://www.henkelna.com/us/content_data/High_Performance_Adhesives_for_Medical_ Device_Assembly_final624849.pdf.
  3. Salerni, C., “Selecting Engineering Adhesives for Medical Device Assembly,” Medical Device and Diagnostic Industry, June 2000.
  4. Petrie, E.M., “Cyanoacrylate Adhesives,” SpecialChem4Adhesives, October 8, 2003.
  5. Estes, R.H., “The Suitability of Epoxy Based Adhesive for Use in Medical Devices,” Technical Paper GB-63, Epoxy Technology Co., Pembroke, MS, USA.
  6. Tavakoli, M., “The Adhesive Bonding of Medical Devices,” Medical Device and Diagnostic Industry, June 2001.

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